The main production processes of high-octane components of motor gasoline are catalytic reforming of straight-run gasoline fraction from the complex of primary oil processing and catalytic cracking of heavy oil fractions (vacuum gas oil). Since 1992 the factory has started to produce unleaded gasoline.
Gasoline, produced by LLP "Pavlodar Oil Chemistry Refinery", has improved ecological properties; it is delivered in many regions of Kazakhstan and greatly appreciated by consumers.
Gasoline is intended for application in reciprocating internal combustion engines with positive ignition (from a spark). It is characterized by the quality characteristics which determine their physical and chemical and operational properties:
antiknock rating (octane number);
lead concentration, sulphur content;
saturated vapour pressure.
Antiknock rating is a parameter which characterizes an ability of motor gasoline to resist to self-ignition under compression. The high antiknock rating of fuel provides its normal combustion in all operating conditions of the engine. Antiknock value of motor gasoline is the octane number showing the isooctane content in the mixture with n-heptane that is equivalent on antiknock rating to fuel tested in standard conditions. The octane level is defined by two methods: motor (MM) and research (RM) one with different conditions of gasoline testing. The octane level defined by motor method characterizes antiknock rating of fuel by car operation in the enhanced heating accelerated conditions; the octane number defined by research method characterizes gasoline by operating on partial loads in the conditions of urban driving.
Chemical stability of commercial gasoline is characterized by breakdown time – the time from the beginning of test until the beginning of oxidation process. The longer the breakdown time, the higher gasoline stability to the oxidation is on long storage. The gasoline characterized by breakdown time of not less than 900 min. can keep the properties during the guaranteed storage life (5 years). Motor gasoline should be chemically neutral and non-corroding. Corrosivity of gasoline and residues of its combustion depends on the content of the total and mercaptan sulfphur, acidity, content of water-soluble acids and alkalis, and water.
Among ecological parameters of gasoline the major one is the content of lead compounds. In this connection LLP “Pavlodar Oil Chemistry Refinery” has completely refused the application of ethyl fluid. There are almost no highly toxic lead compounds in motor gasoline.
Saturated vapour pressure and fractional composition define startability of gasoline, its tendency to vapour lock formation, physical stability. Startability of gasoline deteriorates with decline of its saturated vapour pressure. At pressure of 34кPа the vapour concentration of gasoline in the working area is so small, that the engine start becomes impossible.
LLP “Pavlodar Oil Chemistry Refinery” produces undyed motor gasoline of the following grades АI-80N, АI-92N, АI-95N, АI-98N according to SТ of JSC 39334881-001-2006.
Diesel fuel is mostly produced by mixing of the straight-run component from the complex of primary oil processing with diesel fuel passed through hydrotreating for the purpose of decrease in the content of sulphurous, nitrogenous, oxygenated, metalorganic compounds. Stable operation of engines, reduction of the specific fuel consumption is provided by using of diesel fuel of summer and winter grades. LLP “Pavlodar Oil Chemistry Refinery” has mastered the production of diesel fuel with the low pour point which provides the possibility to operate machinery in the severe winter conditions. It is used in Diesel engines and some types of gas-turbine engines. High compression ratio is achieved in Diesel engine, owing to what the specific fuel consumption in it is lower in 25-30 % than in carburettor engine.
The basic quality characteristics of diesel fuel are:
flammability (cetane number);
viscosity and density;
Cetane number is a basic parameter of flammability of diesel fuel. It defines the engine start, roughness of working process (rate of pressure rise), fuel consumption and exhaust smoking. The higher cetane number of fuel, the less the rate of pressure rise is and the less rough the engine works. The higher cetane number of fuel, the faster the process of its preliminary oxidation in the combustion chamber, the faster the mixture of fuel will be ignited and the engine will be started.
Fractional composition is a parameter that influences the character of fuel combustion. For combustion of fuel with lighter fractional composition it is used less air, thus time for fuel and air mixing decreases, and carburetion processes proceed more completely.
Viscosity and density define evaporating and mixing processes in the injection engine, as the shape and the structure of flame, size of formed drops, range of penetration of fuel drops into the combustion chamber depend on these properties. Lower viscosity and density provide the better fuel atomization; by raising of these parameters diameter of drops increases and their full combustion decreases, as a result the specific fuel combustion and the exhaust smoking increase. Deterioration of pair of hydraulic pistons depends on viscosity as well.
Flash point defines fire danger of fuel. According to GOST 305-82 fuel is produced with flash point of min. 40°С for Diesel engines of general purpose and min. 62°С for diesel locomotive and ship engines.
Low-temperature properties are characterized by such parameters, as cloud point and pour point. For many grades of diesel fuel the difference between these two points makes 5-7°С.
By producing of diesel fuel with the low pour point the parameter "Cloud point or cold filter plugging point" is additionally controlled.
LLP “Pavlodar Oil Chemistry Refinery” produces diesel fuel of the following grades:
According to GOST 305-82:
According to ST of JSC 39334881- 003-2006:
PЗ-0,2 minus 30;
PЗ-0,2 minus 25;
PЗ-0,05 minus 30;
PЗ-0,05 minus 25;