kt1.jpgThe complex of deep crude oil processing KT-1 starts secondary processes of oil distillation at the refinery. KT-1 was the first complex in USSR on deep vacuum processing of oil residue which has been into operation in 1983. The designed capacity of the complex for vacuum distillation of oil residue is 2,0 million t/year.

The design of the first complex KT-1 in the USSR was developed by "Grozgiproneftekhim" Institute (Grozny city) especially for the Pavlodar oil refinery.

Complex КТ-1 allows producing additional valuable oil products from oil residue: high-octane component of gasolines of grades AI-92-K4, AI-95-K4, and component of hydrotreated diesel fuel, propane-propylene and butane-butylene fraction (feedstock for petroleum chemistry).

The complex KT-1 is unique in terms of set of process unit:

    • Vacuum distillation of oil residue, capacity 2,0 million t/year; • vacuum gasoil hydrotreating unit, capacity 2,4 million t/year; • catalytic cracking unit, capacity 1,868 million t/year; • absorption and gas fractionation unit, capacity 1,25 million t/year; • fuel gas waste-heat recovery unit; • hydrogen production unit

In 90-s taking into account gathered experience of KT-1 system operation there has been started an extensive modernization of the complex with involving research institutes and design companies in order to extend recovery of light oil products, and to make greater variety of output oil products as well as to enhance environmental situation. As a result of this reconstruction in KT-1 complex the parameter of oil processing depth has been brought up to 84 %, production of high-octane gasoline of grade AI-92 has been launched.

Within 2001-2007 in КТ-1 complex there were significant works performed in terms of replacement of process equipment and improvement of technologies which has allowed increasing output of target products by more than 4,0 %. The overall volume of gasoline is produced with octane number not lower than 94,0 points by research method. High quality of oil products is the main parameter of KT-1 performance.

Characteristic of KT-1 sections


Section 001 the unit of vacuum distillation of oil residue, which is designed for processing mazut by the vacuum distillation method in order to produce:

    • vacuum distillate – feed of vacuum gasoil hydrotreating; • dark product – component of fuel oil; • oil tar – feed of delayed coking unit and bitumen production unit.


Section 100 is a vacuum distillate hydrotreating unit, intended for preliminary hydrogenation tempering of feedstock of catalytic cracking for decrease in sulphurous, nitrogenous, oxigenous, metallorganic compounds and polycyclic aromatics with simultaneous decrease in its coking capacity, and also gas treating with monoethanolamine fr om hydrogen sulphide.

Hydrotreating process of feedstock of catalytic cracking is carried out by traditional production procedure and consists of:

    • the furnace block, including furnaces for heating of gas mixture before its going into reactors and for unstable hydrogenated feed before its rectification in the atmospheric distillation column; • the reaction block, where hydrotreating process is carried out and the hydrogenated feed is separated from circulating hydrogeneous and hydrocarbonic gases; • rectification (stabilisation) section of hydrogenated feed, wh ere hydrogenated feed is cut into gasoline, diesel fuel and the hydrotreated vacuum distillate; • the block of monoethanolamine treating of gases, where circulating hydrogenous gas, residue gas of catalytic cracking, unstripped gas of visbreaking, propane-propylene fraction and hydrocarbon gas of Section 100 are exposed to purification fr om hydrogen sulphide; • the alkalizing block of butane-butylene fraction, where at the idle reaction block the stripping column of hydrocarbon gas of visbreaking is used in the clearing circuit of butane-butylene fraction by alkali.

Output products:

    • hydrotreated vacuum gasoil; • component of diesel fuel – feedstock for diesel fuel hydrotreating unit of LK-6U


Section 200, included in the combined unit of KT-1, is designed for processing hydrotreated vacuum gasoil into more valuable oil products: high-octane component of motor gasoline, feed for producing liquefied hydrocarbon gas, component of diesel fuel, components of commercial fuel oil, also it includes the reaction block of catalytic cracking, the block of rectification and process condensate treatment, air compressor station.

For the reaction block the flow diagram of catalytic cracking is accepted as at the unit type G-43-107 with a direct-flow riser and fluid catalyst of microspherical shape.

The catalytic cracking of the hydrotreated feed is target-oriented in the set of processes of complex КТ-1 and provides for yield of the following products:

    • unstripped gas and unstable gasoline, used as a feed in the section of absorption and gas fractionation for producing propane-propylene, butane-butylene fractions, dry hydrocarbon gas, high-octane component of motor gasoline (fraction IBP – 205 °С); • light gasoil (fraction 195-340 °С), used as a component of diesel fuel; • fraction above 340 °С, used as a component of fuel oil.

Rectification of the given cracking products is carried out under the traditional process diagram for all models of catalytic cracking in the rectifying column К-201.

The reconstructed block of process condensate treatment (as a part of this section) allows upgrading the qualitative composition of condensate up to the standard level before its dumping to treatment facilities of the refinery.


The section of absorption and gasfractionating is intended for absorption, stabilization and fractionation of unstripped gas and unstable gasoline from the catalytic cracking section.

The section of absorption and gasfractionating consists of the following blocks:

    • the absorption block, where deethanization and absorption of unstriped gas and unstable gasoline are carried out; absorption process is conducted at the low temperatures with application of water and air cooling that provides for extraction of fraction C3 and above by not less than 80 per cent from potential; • the stabilization and fractionation block of top fraction, where stabilization of unstable gasoline is carried out - the saturated absorbent of the block of absorption with separation into stable gasoline and top fraction, which is separated into propane-propylene and butane-butylene fractions.

Output products:

    • propane-propylene fraction; • butane-butylene fraction; • stable gasoline of catalytic cracking – component of K4 gasoline

Hydrogen Production Unit (HPU)

HPU has been commissioned in 2009. The capacity of the unit is 20 thousand Nm3/hour for hydrogen (99,9 % vol.). The unit is designed for production of technical hydrogen necessary for processes of diesel fuel hydrotreating, vacuum gasoil hydrotreating Section 100 KT-1, isomerization unit.